Part One
  Map Reading


  Reading Topographical Maps Introduction 1. HOME

  Topographical Maps - Definition, Purpose and Categories 2. Maps

  Information in the margins of an army map 3. Marginal Information    and Symbols

  Latitude, Longitude and Other Methods to Locate Points on Topographic Maps 4. Grids

  Translating Distance on a Topographic Map to Distance on the Ground 5. Scale and Distance

  Grid North, Azimuth, Declination And Other Concepts Used To Find Direction With Topographic Maps 6. Direction

  Overlays - Used Primarily In Army Map Reading 7. Overlays

  Aerial Photographs - Supplements And Substitutes For Topographic Maps 8. Aerial Photographs

 Part Two
  Land Navigation


  Using Compass, GPS, Sun, Shadows, and Stars in Land Navigation 9. Navigation Equipment    and Methods

  Reading The Shape Of The Land In Topographic Maps 10. Elevation and Relief

  Orienting and Navigating With Topographic Maps 11. Terrain Association

  Mounted Land Navigating With Motorized Vehicles 12. Mounted Land    Navigation

  Land Navigation In Different Types of Terrain 13. Navigation in    Different Types of    Terrain



  Sketching Topographic Maps A. Field Sketching

  Folding Topographic Maps B. Map Folding     Techniques

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps C. Units of Measure and      Conversion Factors

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps D. Joint Operations      Graphics

  US Army Training Material for Map Reading and Land Navigation E. Exportable Training      Material

  Orienteering F. Orienteering

  US Army M2 Compass G. M2 Compass

  Additional Aids such as Night Vision Goggles and Global Positioning System or GPS H. Additional Aids      (GPS, Night Vision)

  Global Positioning System -  GPS J. Global Positioning      System - GPs

 

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APPENDIX C

UNITS OF MEASURE AND CONVERSION FACTORS

This appendix provides conversion tables for units of measure and conversion factors that are used in military operations.

12 inches

36 inches

3 feet

1,760 yards

2,026.8 yards

5,280 feet

6,080.4 feet

63,360 inches

72,963 inches

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

1 foot

1 yard

1 yard

1 mile statute

1 mile nautical

1 mile statute

1 mile nautical

1 mile statute

1 mile nautical

Table C-1. English system of linear measure.

 

1 millimeter

10 millimeters

10 centimeters

10 decimeters

10 meters

10 decameters

10 hectometers

10 kilometers

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

centimeter

centimeter

decimeter

meter

decameter

hectometer

kilometer

1.0 myriameter

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.0393 inches

0.3937 inches

3.937 inches

39.37 inches

32.81 feet

328.1 feet

0.62 mile

6.21 miles

Table C-2. Metric system of linear measure.

 

1 mil

1 grad

1 degree

=

=

=

1/6400 circle

1/400 circle

1/360 circle

=

=

=

0.05625°

16.0 mils

about 17.8 mils

=

=

=

0.0625 grad

0°54' = 0.9°

about 1.1 grad

Table C-3. Equivalent units of angular measure.

 

ONE INCHES FEET YARDS STATUTE MILES NAUTICLE MILES

mm
Inch 1 0.0833 0.0277 - - 25.40
Foot 12 1 0.333 - - 304.8
Yard 36 3 1 0.00056 - 914.4
Statute Mile 63,360 5,280 1,760 1 0.8684 -
Nautical Mile 72,963 6,080 2,026 1.1516 1 -
Millimeter 0.0394 0.0033 0.0011 - - 1
Centimeter 0.3937 0.0328 0.0109 - - 10
Decimeter 3.937

0.328

0.1093

- - 100
Meter 39.37 3.2808 1.0936 0.0006 0.0005 1,000
Decameter 393.7 32.81 10.94 0.0062 0.0054 10,000
Hectometer 3,937 328.1 109.4 0.0621 0.0539 100,000
Kilometer 39,370 3,281 1,094 0.6214 0.5396 1,000,000
Myriameter 393,700 32,808 10,936 6.2137 5.3959 10,000,000

 

ONE cm dm M dkm

hm

km

mym

Inch 2.540 0.2540 0.0254 0.0025 0.0003 - -
Foot 30.48 3.048 0.3048 0.0305 0.0030 0.0003 -
Yard 91.44 9.144 0.9144 0.0914 0.0091 0.0009 -
Statute Mile 160,930 16,093 1,609 160.9 16.09 1.6093 0.1609

Nautical Mile 185,325 18,532 1,853 185.3 18.53 1.8532 0.1853

Millimeter 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 - - -
Centimeter 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 - -
Decimeter 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 -
Meter 100 1 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001

Decameter 1,000 10 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001

Hectometer 10,000 100 100 10 1 0.1 0.01

Kilometer 100,000 1,000 1,000 100 10 1 0.1

Myriameter 1,000,000 10,000 10,000 1000 100 10 1

Table C-4. Conversion factors.

Example I

Problem:Reduce 76 centimeters to (?) inches.
76 cm x 0.3937 = 29 inches
Answer:There are 29 inches in 76 centimeters.

Example II

Problem:How many feet are there in 2.74 meters?
2.74 = 9 feet
——
.3048
Answer:There are approximately 9 feet in 2.74 meters.

 

SCALE 1 INCH EQUALS 1 CENTIMETER EQUALS
1:5,000 416.67 feet
127.00 meters
164.00 feet
50.00 meters
1:10,000

833.33 feet
254.00 meters
328.10 feet
100.00 meters
1:12,500 1,041.66 feet
317.00 meters
410.10 feet
125.00 meters
1:20,000 1,666.70 feet
508.00 meters
656.20 feet
200.00 meters
1:25,000 2,083.30 feet
635.00 meters
820.20 feet
250.00 meters
1:50,000 4,166.70 feet
1,270.00 meters
1,640.40 feet
500.00 meters
1:63,360 5,280.00 feet
1,609.30 meters
2,078.70 feet
633.60 meters
1:100,000 8,333.30 feet
2,540.00 meters
3,280.80 feet
1,000.00 meters
1:250,000 20,833.00 feet
6,350.00 meters
8,202.00 feet
2,500.00 meters
1:500,000 41,667.00 feet
12,700.00 meters
16,404.00 feet
5,000.00 meters

Table C-5. Ground distance at map scale.

 



 

Books

Map Reading and Land Navigation Buy the book this website is based on: Map Reading and Land Navigation

This website is based on the US Army Field Manual: "Map Reading and Land Navigation" Buy a copy from Amazon.com to take with you out in the field.

 

Book Review - Be Expert with Map and Compass

One of the best ways to learn and become proficient in any subject is to find a way to make a game or sport of it. That's exactly what orienteering does! Orienteering began to develop almost 100 years ago in the Scandinavian countries as a fun and effective method for military training in land navigation. Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass. They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This compass, along with Bjorn's book Be Expert with Map and Compass, made it much easier for anyone to learn how to use a map and compass.

This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering. Over 500,000 copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well. It is a short (just over 200 pages), easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.

The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone. Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. This section also introduces the game or sport of orienteering. Part 4 covers competitive orienteering for those who would like to compete with others in the sport.

A reproduction of a segment of an actual topographic map is included as a fold-out in the back of the book. It is used together with the "how-to" instructions the book provides. For example, one of the exercises in Part 3 is an imaginary orienteering "hike" that uses the sample map.

If you would like to have one of the best books available on map reading and using a compass, Be Expert with Map and Compass is hard to beat. You can buy a copy from Amazon.com today.

Read a book review of Agincourt

Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us
  Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us

Basic Coastal Navigation
  Basic Coastal Navigation