Part One
  Map Reading


  Reading Topographical Maps Introduction 1. HOME

  Topographical Maps - Definition, Purpose and Categories 2. Maps

  Information in the margins of an army map 3. Marginal Information    and Symbols

  Latitude, Longitude and Other Methods to Locate Points on Topographic Maps 4. Grids

  Translating Distance on a Topographic Map to Distance on the Ground 5. Scale and Distance

  Grid North, Azimuth, Declination And Other Concepts Used To Find Direction With Topographic Maps 6. Direction

  Overlays - Used Primarily In Army Map Reading 7. Overlays

  Aerial Photographs - Supplements And Substitutes For Topographic Maps 8. Aerial Photographs

 Part Two
  Land Navigation


  Using Compass, GPS, Sun, Shadows, and Stars in Land Navigation 9. Navigation Equipment    and Methods

  Reading The Shape Of The Land In Topographic Maps 10. Elevation and Relief

  Orienting and Navigating With Topographic Maps 11. Terrain Association

  Mounted Land Navigating With Motorized Vehicles 12. Mounted Land    Navigation

  Land Navigation In Different Types of Terrain 13. Navigation in    Different Types of    Terrain



  Sketching Topographic Maps A. Field Sketching

  Folding Topographic Maps B. Map Folding     Techniques

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps C. Units of Measure and      Conversion Factors

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps D. Joint Operations      Graphics

  US Army Training Material for Map Reading and Land Navigation E. Exportable Training      Material

  Orienteering F. Orienteering

  US Army M2 Compass G. M2 Compass

  Additional Aids such as Night Vision Goggles and Global Positioning System or GPS H. Additional Aids      (GPS, Night Vision)

  Global Positioning System -  GPS J. Global Positioning      System - GPs

 

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11-4. TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Military cross-country navigation is intellectually demanding because it is imperative that the unit, crew, or vehicle survive and successfully complete the move in order to accomplish its mission. However, the unnecessary use of a difficult route makes navigation too complicated, creates more noise when proceeding over it, causes wear and tear on equipment and personnel, increases the need for and needlessly complicate recovery operations, and wastes scarce time. On receipt of a tactical mission, the leader begins his troop-leading procedures and makes a tentative plan. He bases the tentative plan on a good terrain analysis. He analyzes the considerations covered in the following mnemonics—OCOKA and METT-T.

a.   OCOKA. The terrain should be analyzed for observation and fields of fire, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach.

(1)   Observation and Fields of Fire. The purpose of observation is to see the enemy (or various landmarks) but not be seen by him. Anything that can be seen can be hit. Therefore, a field of fire is an area that a weapon or a group of weapons can cover effectively with fire from a given position.

(2)   Cover and Concealment. Cover is shelter or protection (from enemy fire) either natural or artificial. Always try to use covered routes and seek cover for each halt, no matter how brief it is planned to be. Unfortunately, two factors interfere with obtaining constant cover. One is time and the other is terrain. Concealment is protection from observation or surveillance, including concealment from enemy air observation. Before, trees provided good concealment, but with modern thermal and infrared imaging equipment, trees are not always effective. When you are moving, concealment is generally secondary; therefore, select routes and positions that do not allow covered or concealed enemy near you.

(3)   Obstacles. Obstacles are any obstructions that stop, delay, or divert movement. Obstacles can be natural (rivers, swamps, cliffs, or mountains) or they may be artificial (barbed wire entanglements, pits, concrete or metal antimechanized traps). They can be ready-made or constructed in the field. Always consider any possible obstacles along your movement route and, if possible, try to keep obstacles between the enemy and yourself.

(4)   Key Terrain. Key terrain is any locality or area that the seizure or retention of affords a marked advantage to either combatant. Urban areas that are often seen by higher headquarters as being key terrain because they are used to control routes. On the other hand, an urban area that is destroyed may be an obstacle instead. High ground can be key because it dominates an area with good observation and fields of fire. In an open area, a draw or wadi (dry streambed located in an arid area) may provide the only cover for many kilometers, thereby becoming key. You should always attempt to locate any area near you that could be even remotely considered as key terrain.

(5)   Avenues of Approach. These are access routes. They may be the routes you can use to get to the enemy or the routes they can use to get to you. Basically, an identifiable route that approaches a position or location is an avenue of approach to that location. They are often terrain corridors such as valleys or wide, open areas.

b   . METT-T. Tactical factors other than the military aspects of terrain must also be considered in conjunction with terrain during movement planning and execution as well. These additional considerations are mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, and time available.

(1)   Mission. This refers to the specific task assigned to a unit or individual. It is the duty or task together with the purpose that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason for it—but not how to do it. Training exercises should stress the importance of a thorough map reconnaissance to evaluate the terrain. This allows the leader to confirm his tentative plan, basing his decision on the terrain's effect on his mission.

(a)   Marches by foot or vehicle are used to move troops from one location to another. Soldiers must get to the right place, at the right time, and in good fighting condition. The normal rate for an 8-hour foot march is 4 kmph. However, the rate of march may vary, depending on the following factors:

  • Distance.

  • Time allowed.

  • Likelihood of enemy contact.

  • Terrain.

  • Weather.

  • Physical condition of soldiers.

  • Equipment/weight to be carried.

  • A motor march requires little or no walking by the soldiers, but the factors affecting the rate of march still apply.

(b)   Patrol missions are used to conduct combat or reconnaissance operations. Without detailed planning and a thorough map reconnaissance, any patrol mission may not succeed. During the map reconnaissance, the mission leader determines a primary and alternate route to and from the objectives.

(c)   Movement to contact is conducted whenever an element is moving toward the enemy but is not in contact with the enemy. The lead element must orient its movement on the objective by conducting a map reconnaissance, determining the location of the objective on both the map and the ground, and selecting the route to be taken.

(d)   Delays and withdrawals are conducted to slow the enemy down without becoming decisively engaged, or to assume another mission. To be effective, the element leader must know where he is to move and the route to be taken.

(2)   Enemy. This refers to the strength, status of training, disposition (locations), doctrine, capabilities, equipment (including night vision devices), and probable courses of action that impact upon both the planning and execution of the mission, including a movement.

(3)   Terrain and Weather. Observation and fields of fire influence the placement of positions and crew-served weapons. The leader conducts a map reconnaissance to determine key terrain, obstacles, cover and concealment, and likely avenues of approach.

(a)   Key terrain is any area whose control affords a marked advantage to the force holding it. Some types of key terrain are high ground, bridges, towns, and road junctions.

(b)   Obstacles are natural or man-made terrain features that stop, slow down, or divert movement. Consideration of obstacles is influenced by the unit's mission. An obstacle may be an advantage or disadvantage, depending upon the direction of attack or defense. Obstacles can be found by conducting a thorough map reconnaissance and study of recent aerial photographs.

(c)   Cover and concealment are determined for both friendly and enemy forces. Concealment is protection from observation; cover is protection from the effects of fire. Most terrain features that offer cover also provide concealment from ground observation. There are areas that provide no concealment from enemy observation. These danger areas may be large or small open fields, roads, or streams. During the leader's map reconnaissance, he determines any obvious danger areas and, if possible, adjusts his route.

(d)   Avenues of approach are routes by which a unit may reach an objective or key terrain. To be considered an AA, a route must provide enough width for the deployment of the size force for which it is being considered. The AAs are also considered for the subordinate enemy force. For example, a company determines likely AAs for an enemy platoon; a platoon determines likely AAs for an enemy squad. Likely AAs may be either ridges, valleys, or by air. By examining the terrain, the leader determines the likely enemy AAs based on the tactical situation.

(e)   Weather has little effect on dismounted land navigation. Rain and snow could possibly slow down the rate of march, that is all. But during mounted land navigation, the navigator must know the effect of weather on his vehicle. (See Chapter 12 for mounted land navigation.)

(4)   Troops. Consideration of your own troops is equally important. The size and type of the unit to be moved and its capabilities, physical condition, status of training, and types of equipment assigned all affect the selection of routes, positions, fire plans, and the various decisions to be made during movement. On ideal terrain such as relatively level ground with little or no woods, a platoon can defend a front of up to 400 meters. The leader must conduct a thorough map reconnaissance and terrain analysis of the area his unit is to defend. Heavily wooded areas or very hilly areas may reduce the front a platoon can defend. The size of the unit must also be taken into consideration when planning a movement to contact. During movement, the unit must retain its ability to maneuver. A small draw or stream may reduce the unit's maneuverability but provide excellent concealment. All of these factors must be considered.

(a)   Types of equipment that may be needed by the unit can be determined by a map reconnaissance. For example, if the unit must cross a large stream during its movement to the objective, ropes may be needed for safety lines.

(b)   Physical capabilities of the soldiers must be considered when selecting a route. Crossing a large swampy area may present no problem to a physically fit unit, but to a unit that has not been physically conditioned, the swampy area may slow or completely stop its movement.

(5)   Time Available. At times, the unit may have little time to reach an objective or to move from one point to another. The leader must conduct a map reconnaissance to determine the quickest route to the objective; this is not always a straight route. From point A to point B on the map may appear to be 1,000 meters, but if the route is across a large ridge, the distance will be greater. Another route from point A to B may be 1,500 meters—but on flat terrain. In this case, the quickest route would be across the flat terrain; however, concealment and cover may be lost.


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Books

Map Reading and Land Navigation Buy the book this website is based on: Map Reading and Land Navigation

This website is based on the US Army Field Manual: "Map Reading and Land Navigation" Buy a copy from Amazon.com to take with you out in the field.

 

Book Review - Be Expert with Map and Compass

One of the best ways to learn and become proficient in any subject is to find a way to make a game or sport of it. That's exactly what orienteering does! Orienteering began to develop almost 100 years ago in the Scandinavian countries as a fun and effective method for military training in land navigation. Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass. They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This compass, along with Bjorn's book Be Expert with Map and Compass, made it much easier for anyone to learn how to use a map and compass.

This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering. Over 500,000 copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well. It is a short (just over 200 pages), easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.

The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone. Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. This section also introduces the game or sport of orienteering. Part 4 covers competitive orienteering for those who would like to compete with others in the sport.

A reproduction of a segment of an actual topographic map is included as a fold-out in the back of the book. It is used together with the "how-to" instructions the book provides. For example, one of the exercises in Part 3 is an imaginary orienteering "hike" that uses the sample map.

If you would like to have one of the best books available on map reading and using a compass, Be Expert with Map and Compass is hard to beat. You can buy a copy from Amazon.com today.

Read a book review of Agincourt

Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us
  Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us

Basic Coastal Navigation
  Basic Coastal Navigation