Part One
  Map Reading

  Reading Topographical Maps Introduction 1. HOME

  Topographical Maps - Definition, Purpose and Categories 2. Maps

  Information in the margins of an army map 3. Marginal Information    and Symbols

  Latitude, Longitude and Other Methods to Locate Points on Topographic Maps 4. Grids

  Translating Distance on a Topographic Map to Distance on the Ground 5. Scale and Distance

  Grid North, Azimuth, Declination And Other Concepts Used To Find Direction With Topographic Maps 6. Direction

  Overlays - Used Primarily In Army Map Reading 7. Overlays

  Aerial Photographs - Supplements And Substitutes For Topographic Maps 8. Aerial Photographs

 Part Two
  Land Navigation

  Using Compass, GPS, Sun, Shadows, and Stars in Land Navigation 9. Navigation Equipment    and Methods

  Reading The Shape Of The Land In Topographic Maps 10. Elevation and Relief

  Orienting and Navigating With Topographic Maps 11. Terrain Association

  Mounted Land Navigating With Motorized Vehicles 12. Mounted Land    Navigation

  Land Navigation In Different Types of Terrain 13. Navigation in    Different Types of    Terrain

  Sketching Topographic Maps A. Field Sketching

  Folding Topographic Maps B. Map Folding     Techniques

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps C. Units of Measure and      Conversion Factors

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps D. Joint Operations      Graphics

  US Army Training Material for Map Reading and Land Navigation E. Exportable Training      Material

  Orienteering F. Orienteering

  US Army M2 Compass G. M2 Compass

  Additional Aids such as Night Vision Goggles and Global Positioning System or GPS H. Additional Aids      (GPS, Night Vision)

  Global Positioning System -  GPS J. Global Positioning      System - GPs


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About 5 percent of the earth's land surface is covered by deserts (Figure 13-1). Deserts are large arid areas with little or no rainfall during the year. There are three types of deserts—mountain, rocky plateau, and sandy or dune deserts. All types of forces can be deployed in the desert. Armor and mechanized infantry forces are especially suitable to desert combat except in rough mountainous terrain where light infantry may be required. Airborne, air assault, and motorized forces can also be advantageously employed to exploit the vast distances characteristic of desert warfare.

Figure 13-1. Land Navigation - Deserts.

Figure 13-1. Deserts.

a.   Desert Regions. In desert regions, terrain varies from nearly flat to lava beds and salt marshes. Mountain deserts contain scattered ranges or areas of barren hills or mountains. Table 13-1 lists some of the world's major desert regions and their locations.

Region Location
SaharaNorth Africa
KalahariSouthwest Africa
ArabianSouthwest Asia
GobiMongolia and Northern China
Rub'al KhaliSouth Arabia
Great Basin, Colorado, Chihuahua, Yuma Sonoran, and MohaveNorthern Mexico and Western United States
Takla MakanNorthern China
Kyzyl KumSouthwest USSR
Kara KumSouthwest USSR
SyrianSaudi Arabia, Jordan, and Iraq
Great VictoriaWestern and South Australia
PatagoniaSouthern Argentina and Chile
AltacamaNorthern Chile

Table 13-1. Major desert regions.

(1)   Finding the way in a desert presents some degree of difficulty for a person who has never been exposed to this environment. Desert navigators have learned their way through generations of experience.

(2)   Normally, desert people are nomadic, constantly moving in caravans. Navigating becomes second nature to them. Temperature in the tropical deserts reaches an average of 110° to 115° during the day, so most navigation takes place at night using the stars. Most deserts have some prevailing winds during the seasons. Such winds arrange the sand dunes in a specific pattern that gives the navigator the opportunity to determine the four cardinal directions. He may also use the sun's shadow-tip method.

(3)   A sense of direction can be obtained by watching desert animals on their way to and from water holes (oases). Water, navigation, and survival are closely related in desert areas. Most deserts have pigeons or doves, and their drinking habits are important to the navigator. As a rule, these birds never drink in the morning or during the day, making their evening flights the most important. When returning from the oases, their bodies are heavier from drinking and their flight is accompanied by a louder flapping of their wings.

(4)   Visibility is also an important factor in the desert, especially in judging distance. The absence of trees or other features prevents comparison between the horizon and the skyline.

b.   Interpretation and Analysis. Many desert maps are inaccurate, which makes up-to-date air, aerial photo, and ground reconnaissance necessary. In desert mountain areas contour intervals are generally large, so many of the intermediate relief features are not shown.

(1)   The desert normally permits observation and fire to maximum ranges. The terrain is generally wide open and the exceptionally clear atmosphere offers excellent long-range visibility. Combine this with a powerful sun and low cloud density and you have nearly unlimited light and visual clarity, which often contribute to gross underestimations of ranges. Errors of up to 200 or 300 percent are not uncommon. However, visibility conditions may be severely affected by sandstorms and mirages (heat shimmer caused by air rising from the extremely hot daytime desert surface), especially if the observer is looking into the sun through magnifying optical instruments.

(2)   Cover can be provided only by terrain feature masking because of the lack of heavy vegetation and man-made objects. It only takes a few meters of relief to provide cover. Concealment in the desert is related to the following factors:

(a)   Shape. In order not to be observed by the enemy, attempt to alter the standard shapes of vehicles so they and their shadows are not instantly recognized.

(b)   Shine. Shine or glitter is often the first thing that attracts the observer's eye to movement many kilometers away. It must be eliminated.

(c)   Color and texture. All equipment should either be pattern painted or mudded to blend in with the terrain.

(d)   Light and noise. Light and noise discipline are essential because sound and light travel great distances in the desert.

(e)   Heat. Modern heat image technology makes shielding heat sources an important consideration when trying to hide from the enemy. This technology is especially important during night stops.

(f)   Movement. Movement itself creates a great deal of noise and dust, but a rapid execution using all the advantages the topography offers can help conceal it.

c.   Navigation. When operating in the broad basins between mountain ranges or on rocky plateau deserts, there are frequently many terrain features to guide your movement by. But, observing these known features over great distances may provide a false sense of security in determining your precise location unless you frequently confirm your location by resection or referencing close-in terrain features. It is not uncommon to develop errors of several kilometers when casually estimating a position in this manner. Obviously, this can create many problems when attempting to locate a small checkpoint or objective, calling for CAS, reporting operational or intelligence information, or meeting CSS requirements.

(1)   When operating in an area with few visual cues, such as in a sandy or dune desert, or restricted visibility by a sandstorm or darkness, you must proceed by dead reckoning. The four steps and two techniques for navigation presented earlier remain valid in the desert. However, understanding the special conditions found there are extremely helpful as you apply them.

(2)   Tactical mobility and speed are key to successful desert operations. Obstacles and areas such as lava beds or salt marshes, which preclude surface movements, do exist. But most deserts permit two-dimensional movement by ground forces similar to that of a naval task force at sea. Speed of execution is essential. Everyone moves farther and faster on the desert. Special navigation aids sometimes used in the desert include:

(a)   Sun compass. It can be used on moving vehicles and sextants. It requires accurate timekeeping. However, the deviation on a magnetic compass that is caused by the metal and electronics in the vehicle is usually less than +10°.

(b)   Gyro compass. The gun azimuth stabilizer is in fact a gyro compass. If used on fairly flat ground, it is useful for maintaining direction over limited distances.

(c)   Fires. Planned tracer fire or mortar and artillery concentrations (preferably smoke during the day and illumination at night) provide useful checks on estimated locations.

(d)   Prepositioned lights. This method consists of placing two or more searchlights far apart, behind the line of contact, beyond enemy artillery range, and concealed from enemy ground observation. Units in the area can determine their own locations through resection, using the vertical beams of the lights. These lights must be moved on a time schedule known to all friendly units.

(3)   One final note on desert navigation is that the sand, hard-baked ground, rocky surfaces, thorny vegetation, and heat generally found in the desert impose far greater demands for maintenance than you would plan for in temperate regions. It may also take longer to perform that maintenance.

Return to Navigation In Different Types Of Terrain



Map Reading and Land Navigation Buy the book this website is based on: Map Reading and Land Navigation

This website is based on the US Army Field Manual: "Map Reading and Land Navigation" Buy a copy from to take with you out in the field.


Book Review - Be Expert with Map and Compass

One of the best ways to learn and become proficient in any subject is to find a way to make a game or sport of it. That's exactly what orienteering does! Orienteering began to develop almost 100 years ago in the Scandinavian countries as a fun and effective method for military training in land navigation. Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass. They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This compass, along with Bjorn's book Be Expert with Map and Compass, made it much easier for anyone to learn how to use a map and compass.

This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering. Over 500,000 copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well. It is a short (just over 200 pages), easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.

The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone. Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. This section also introduces the game or sport of orienteering. Part 4 covers competitive orienteering for those who would like to compete with others in the sport.

A reproduction of a segment of an actual topographic map is included as a fold-out in the back of the book. It is used together with the "how-to" instructions the book provides. For example, one of the exercises in Part 3 is an imaginary orienteering "hike" that uses the sample map.

If you would like to have one of the best books available on map reading and using a compass, Be Expert with Map and Compass is hard to beat. You can buy a copy from today.

Read a book review of Agincourt

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