Part One
  Map Reading


  Reading Topographical Maps Introduction 1. HOME

  Topographical Maps - Definition, Purpose and Categories 2. Maps

  Information in the margins of an army map 3. Marginal Information    and Symbols

  Latitude, Longitude and Other Methods to Locate Points on Topographic Maps 4. Grids

  Translating Distance on a Topographic Map to Distance on the Ground 5. Scale and Distance

  Grid North, Azimuth, Declination And Other Concepts Used To Find Direction With Topographic Maps 6. Direction

  Overlays - Used Primarily In Army Map Reading 7. Overlays

  Aerial Photographs - Supplements And Substitutes For Topographic Maps 8. Aerial Photographs

 Part Two
  Land Navigation


  Using Compass, GPS, Sun, Shadows, and Stars in Land Navigation 9. Navigation Equipment    and Methods

  Reading The Shape Of The Land In Topographic Maps 10. Elevation and Relief

  Orienting and Navigating With Topographic Maps 11. Terrain Association

  Mounted Land Navigating With Motorized Vehicles 12. Mounted Land    Navigation

  Land Navigation In Different Types of Terrain 13. Navigation in    Different Types of    Terrain



  Sketching Topographic Maps A. Field Sketching

  Folding Topographic Maps B. Map Folding     Techniques

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps C. Units of Measure and      Conversion Factors

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps D. Joint Operations      Graphics

  US Army Training Material for Map Reading and Land Navigation E. Exportable Training      Material

  Orienteering F. Orienteering

  US Army M2 Compass G. M2 Compass

  Additional Aids such as Night Vision Goggles and Global Positioning System or GPS H. Additional Aids      (GPS, Night Vision)

  Global Positioning System -  GPS J. Global Positioning      System - GPs

 

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13-2. MOUNTAIN TERRAIN

Mountains are generally understood to be larger than hills. Rarely do mountains occur individually; in most cases, they are found in elongated ranges or circular groups. When they are linked together, they constitute a mountain system (Figure 13-2). Light forces (infantry, airborne, and air assault forces) can operate effectively in mountainous regions because they are not terrain limited. Heavy forces must operate in passes and valleys that are negotiable by vehicle.

Figure 13-2. Land Navigation - Mountain systems.

Figure 13-2. Mountain systems.

a.   Major Systems. Major systems are listed in Table 13-2.

System Location
The AndesCentral and South America
The RockiesNorth America (USA-Canada)
The AppalachiansNorth America (USA-Canada)
The AlpsCentral Europe
The HimalayasAsia
The CaucasusWestern Asia and Europe (Russia)

Table 13-2. Major systems.

b.   Minor Systems. Some other systems are in Antarctica, Hawaii, Japan, New Zealand, and Oceania. Mountain systems are characterized by high, inaccessible peaks and steep slopes. Depending on the altitude, they may be snow covered. Prominent ridges and large valleys are also found. Navigating in this type of terrain is not difficult providing you make a careful examination of the map and the terrain.

c.   Climate. Because of the elevations, it is always colder (3° to 5° per 300-meter gain in altitude) and wetter than you might expect. Wind speeds can increase the effects of the cold even more. Sudden severe storms and fog are encountered regularly. Below the tree line, vegetation is heavy because of the extra rainfall and the fact that the land is rarely cleared for farming.

d.   Interpretation and Analysis. The heights of mountainous terrain permit excellent long-range observation. However, rapidly fluctuating weather with frequent periods of high winds, rain, snow, or fog may limit visibility. Also, the rugged nature of the terrain frequently produces significant dead space at mid-ranges.

(1)   Reduced mobility, compartmented terrain, and the effects of rapidly changing weather increase the importance of air, ground, aerial photo, and map reconnaissance. Since mountain maps often use large contour intevals, microrelief interpretation and detailed terrain analysis require special emphasis.

(2)   At first glance, some mountainous terrain may not appear to offer adequate cover and concealment; however, you can improve the situation. When moving, use rock outcroppings, boulders, and heavy vegetation for cover and concealment; use terrain features to mask maneuvers. Use harsh weather, which often obscures observation, to enhance concealment.

(3)   Since there are only a few routing options, all-round security must be of primary concern. Natural obstacles are everywhere, and the enemy can easily construct more.

e.   Navigation. Existing roads and trails offer the best routes for movement. Off-road movement may enhance security provided there is detailed reconnaissance, photo intelligence, or information from local inhabitants to ensure the route is negotiable. Again, the four steps and two techniques for navigation presented earlier remain valid in the mountains. Nevertheless, understanding the special conditions and the terrain will help you navigate. Other techniques that are sometimes helpful in mountains are:

(1)   Aspect of Slope. To determine the aspect of slope, take a compass reading along an imaginary line that runs straight down the slope. It should cut through each of the contour lines at about a 90° angle. By checking the map and knowing the direction of slope where you are located, you will be able to keep track of your location, and it will help guide your cross-country movement even when visibility is poor.

(2)   Use of an Altimeter. Employment of an altimeter with calibrations on the scale down to 10 or 20 meters is helpful to land navigators moving in areas where radical changes in elevation exist. An altimeter is a type of barometer that gauges air pressure, except it measures on an adjustable scale marked in feet or meters of elevation rather than in inches or centimeters of mercury. Careful use of the altimeter helps to pinpoint your position on a map through a unique type of resection. Instead of finding your position by using two different directional values, you use one directional value and one elevation value.


Return to Navigation In Different Types Of Terrain
 



 

Books

Map Reading and Land Navigation Buy the book this website is based on: Map Reading and Land Navigation

This website is based on the US Army Field Manual: "Map Reading and Land Navigation" Buy a copy from Amazon.com to take with you out in the field.

 

Book Review - Be Expert with Map and Compass

One of the best ways to learn and become proficient in any subject is to find a way to make a game or sport of it. That's exactly what orienteering does! Orienteering began to develop almost 100 years ago in the Scandinavian countries as a fun and effective method for military training in land navigation. Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass. They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This compass, along with Bjorn's book Be Expert with Map and Compass, made it much easier for anyone to learn how to use a map and compass.

This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering. Over 500,000 copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well. It is a short (just over 200 pages), easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.

The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone. Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. This section also introduces the game or sport of orienteering. Part 4 covers competitive orienteering for those who would like to compete with others in the sport.

A reproduction of a segment of an actual topographic map is included as a fold-out in the back of the book. It is used together with the "how-to" instructions the book provides. For example, one of the exercises in Part 3 is an imaginary orienteering "hike" that uses the sample map.

If you would like to have one of the best books available on map reading and using a compass, Be Expert with Map and Compass is hard to beat. You can buy a copy from Amazon.com today.

Read a book review of Agincourt

Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us
  Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us

Basic Coastal Navigation
  Basic Coastal Navigation