Part One
  Map Reading


  Reading Topographical Maps Introduction 1. HOME

  Topographical Maps - Definition, Purpose and Categories 2. Maps

  Information in the margins of an army map 3. Marginal Information    and Symbols

  Latitude, Longitude and Other Methods to Locate Points on Topographic Maps 4. Grids

  Translating Distance on a Topographic Map to Distance on the Ground 5. Scale and Distance

  Grid North, Azimuth, Declination And Other Concepts Used To Find Direction With Topographic Maps 6. Direction

  Overlays - Used Primarily In Army Map Reading 7. Overlays

  Aerial Photographs - Supplements And Substitutes For Topographic Maps 8. Aerial Photographs

 Part Two
  Land Navigation


  Using Compass, GPS, Sun, Shadows, and Stars in Land Navigation 9. Navigation Equipment    and Methods

  Reading The Shape Of The Land In Topographic Maps 10. Elevation and Relief

  Orienting and Navigating With Topographic Maps 11. Terrain Association

  Mounted Land Navigating With Motorized Vehicles 12. Mounted Land    Navigation

  Land Navigation In Different Types of Terrain 13. Navigation in    Different Types of    Terrain



  Sketching Topographic Maps A. Field Sketching

  Folding Topographic Maps B. Map Folding     Techniques

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps C. Units of Measure and      Conversion Factors

  Units of Measure and Conversion Factors Used in Reading Topographic Maps D. Joint Operations      Graphics

  US Army Training Material for Map Reading and Land Navigation E. Exportable Training      Material

  Orienteering F. Orienteering

  US Army M2 Compass G. M2 Compass

  Additional Aids such as Night Vision Goggles and Global Positioning System or GPS H. Additional Aids      (GPS, Night Vision)

  Global Positioning System -  GPS J. Global Positioning      System - GPs

 

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2-3. PROCUREMENT

Most military units are authorized a basic load of maps. Local command supplements to AR 115-11 provide tables of initial allowances for maps. Map requisitions and distributions are accomplished through the Defense Mapping Agency Hydrographic and Topographic Center's Office of Distribution and Services. In the division, however, maps are a responsibility of the G2 section.

a.   To order a map, refer to the DMA catalog located at your S2/G2 shop. Part 3 of this catalog, Topographic Maps, has five volumes. Using the delineated map index, find the map or maps you want based upon the location of the nearest city. With this information, order maps using the following forms:

(1)   Standard Form 344. It can be typed or handwritten; it is used for mailing or over-the-counter service.

(2)   Department of Defense Form 1348. Same as SF 344. You can order copies of only one map sheet on each form.

(3)   Department of Defense Form 1348M. This is a punch card form for AUDODIN ordering.

(4)   Department of Defense Form 173. This is a message form to be used for urgent ordering.

With the exception of the message form (DD 173), the numbered sections of all forms are the same. For example: In block 1, if you are in CONUS, enter "AOD," if you are overseas, enter "AO4. " In block 2, use one of the following codes for your location.

LOCATION CODE

Europe

Hawaii

Korea

Alaska

Panama

CONUS

CS7

HM9

WM4

WC1

HMJ

HM8

Your supply section will help you complete the rest of the form.

b.   Stock numbers are also listed in map catalogs, which are available at division and higher levels and occasionally in smaller units. A map catalog consists of small-scale maps upon which the outlines of the individual map sheets of a series have been delineated. Another document that is an aid to the map user is the gazetteer. A gazetteer lists all the names appearing on a map series of a geographical area, a designation that identifies what is located at that place name, a grid reference, a sheet number of the map upon which the name appeared, and the latitude and longitude of the named features. Gazetteers are prepared for maps of foreign areas only.

2-4. SECURITY

All maps should be considered as documents that require special handling. If a map falls into unauthorized hands, it could easily endanger military operations by providing information of friendly plans or areas of interest to the enemy. Even more important would be a map on which the movements or positions of friendly soldiers were marked. It is possible, even though the markings on a map have been erased, to determine some of the erased information. Maps are documents that must not fall into unauthorized hands.

a.   If a map is no longer needed, it must be turned in to the proper authority. If a map is in danger of being captured, it must be destroyed. The best method of destruction is by burning it and scattering the ashes. If burning is not possible, the map can be torn into small pieces and scattered over a wide area.

b.   Maps of some areas of the world are subject to third party limitations. These are agreements that permit the United States to make and use maps of another country provided these maps are not released to any third party without permission of the country concerned. Such maps require special handling.

c.   Some maps may be classified and must be handled and cared for in accordance with AR 380-5 and, if applicable, other local security directives.

2-5. CARE

Maps are documents printed on paper and require protection from water, mud, and tearing. Whenever possible, a map should be carried in a waterproof case, in a pocket, or in some other place where it is handy for use but still protected.

a.   Care must also be taken when using a map since it may have to last a long time. If it becomes necessary to mark a map, the use of a pencil is recommended. Use light lines so they may be erased easily without smearing and smudging, or leaving marks that may cause confusion later. If the map margins must be trimmed for any reason, it is essential to note any marginal information that may be needed later, such as grid data and magnetic declination.

b.   Special care should be taken of a map that is being used in a tactical mission, especially in small units; the mission may depend on that map. All members of such units should be familiar with the map's location at all times.

c.   Appendix B shows two ways of folding a map.


Return to Beginning of Chapter 2 - Maps
 



 

Books

Map Reading and Land Navigation Buy the book this website is based on: Map Reading and Land Navigation

This website is based on the US Army Field Manual: "Map Reading and Land Navigation" Buy a copy from Amazon.com to take with you out in the field.

 

Book Review - Be Expert with Map and Compass

One of the best ways to learn and become proficient in any subject is to find a way to make a game or sport of it. That's exactly what orienteering does! Orienteering began to develop almost 100 years ago in the Scandinavian countries as a fun and effective method for military training in land navigation. Bjorn Kjellstrom was closely involved with the early development of orienteering, and he is the person who introduced the sport to North America. He, along with his brother Alvar, and a friend named Gunnar Tillander, invented the modern orienteering compass. They manufactured and marketed it as the Silva Protractor compass. This compass, along with Bjorn's book Be Expert with Map and Compass, made it much easier for anyone to learn how to use a map and compass.

This book has become the most widely read classic on the subject of map reading, compass use, and orienteering. Over 500,000 copies have been sold in the english language editions alone. There have been very successful editions published in French, Italian, and other languages as well. It is a short (just over 200 pages), easy to read, enjoyable book that can help you to have fun while you learn the subject quickly and effectively.

The book is organized into four main parts, plus a short, useful introduction. Part 1 covers having fun with maps alone. Then, Part 2 covers having fun with a compass alone. Part 3 puts it together and shows you how to have fun with a map and compass together. This section also introduces the game or sport of orienteering. Part 4 covers competitive orienteering for those who would like to compete with others in the sport.

A reproduction of a segment of an actual topographic map is included as a fold-out in the back of the book. It is used together with the "how-to" instructions the book provides. For example, one of the exercises in Part 3 is an imaginary orienteering "hike" that uses the sample map.

If you would like to have one of the best books available on map reading and using a compass, Be Expert with Map and Compass is hard to beat. You can buy a copy from Amazon.com today.

Read a book review of Agincourt

Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us
  Boat Navigation For The Rest of Us

Basic Coastal Navigation
  Basic Coastal Navigation